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15 – 18 Y

Expression Language is used for its own sake (to “just chat”) Single word vocabulary is 10,000 words (average) by graduation from high school Use of language to argue or persuade continue to develop toward adult levels

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12 – 14 Y

Expression Continued increase in use of abstract language Most sentences contain multiple clauses (embedded or conjoined) Use of language to reason (for persuasion or argumentation) becomes more common and sophisticated Understanding: Understanding of abstract language and multiple-step, complex instructions continues to progress

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9 – 12 Y

Expression Vocabulary used becomes far more abstract and sophisticated, mirroring that being learned in school Understanding: Understands common idioms and colloquialisms, metaphors, and similes Understands jokes and riddles that use word-play Beginning of metacognition: thinking about thinking

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7 – 9 Y

Expression Language is used in a social way, with intention, to establish and affect relationships Stories are detailed and complete, with fully developed characters and multiple, related episodes Child attempts to persuade using reasonable arguments Use of figurative and abstract language, such as telling jokes Repairs conversations by giving more information or definitions Understanding: Recognition

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6 – 7 Y

Expression Can use age-appropriate slang States the alphabet in correct order Counts to 100 Sentences now contain multiple clauses, but may contain some grammatical errors Single grammar contains no errors Use of logical terms (if, so, then) Story plots/events, characters and their relationships, and sequence of story events are make sense to most listeners Understanding:

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5 – 6 Y

Expression Speech is almost always understood No speech errors present by 5.5 y Makes complex sentences, using conjunctions Refers to the future regularly Counts to 30 and names days of the week, in order, with no errors States full name and address Uses more complex sentences with Can make requests without stating them directly Stories

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4.5 – 5 Y

Expression Uses at least 1500 words Pronunciation errors are common in long, complex words, like “syllable” Speech is understandable by most adults Uses some irregular past tense words, possessive pronouns Talks about the future using the “will” Comparative and superlative forms emerge Sentences are at least 5 words long Stories have some order of events,

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4 – 4.5 Y

Expression Pronunciation errors are almost all gone The majority of sentences used are at least 4 words long Begins to tell stories with basic structure (at least a beginning and end) Corrects self and rephrases when a listener doesn’t understand The following grammatical constructions are beginning to be used appropriately: irregular plurals, plural possessives Understanding:

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3.5 – 4 Y

Expression Strangers can understand almost all of what the child says, but child may continue to make some errors Single-word vocabulary is 1000-1500 words, spoken in 4-5 word sentences Tells a story by simply stating real or unreal events in no particular order Asks how, why, and if questions The following grammatical constructions are mastered:

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3 – 3.5 Y

Expression Common mispronunciations are all but gone, but speech is still difficult for all strangers to understand Single-word vocabulary is 800 words; many sentences are 4 words long Begins to ask what and who questions Uses action words The following grammatical constructions begin to be used appropriately: irregular plurals, conjunction (and) Understanding: Can answer “how”

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